According to FAO, the land is categorized as fertile if the land can supply nutrients and water to plants so that plants can grow and develop optimally. Infertile soils, no compounds will be found that can cause growth retardation, plant development, and soil erosion. Badlands, on the other hand, have the opposite characteristics of fertile land. Badlands are indeed unproductive when used as agricultural land. But actually, this soil condition can be repaired with soil conservation efforts using hydromulching. To preserve and improve soil fertility, by preventing landslides and how to prevent soil erosion, some of the following methods can be used. Fertilizers, especially NPK, will add soil essential nutrients, namely nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, while manure or compost will add soil organic matter. Both will improve the condition of land topsoil.
High salinity will not allow plants to grow. This high salinity can be corrected by the addition of humic acid from the degradation of organic matter. This compound can bind to anions and cations thereby decreasing salinity. Piracy of land both manually and using a tractor serves to reverse the land and make the soil loose. Crumbly means that the soil layer has many cavities so that plants can grow by utilizing oxygen in the soil. Soil-living things such as worms can be added to the soil, as well as the soil microbial consortium. Worms will process organic matter into vermicompost in the form of vermicompost. Soil microbes will conduct a cycle of nitrogen and carbon cycles that are useful for plant fertility.
Plant replacement is useful for increasing soil fertility by adding soil organic matter. For example, planting land with pea plants will increase the nitrogen content of the soil due to the symbiosis with bacteria. Defective land which will have an impact due to deforested forests can be replanted with gradual planting before being used as agricultural land to improve soil structure and increase the topsoil layer. If the pH is too acidic, the soil can be given limestone, but if it is too alkaline, the soil can be given sulfur.